Causes of The War of 1812: The Second War of American Independence

______4th President

¡  A student of history and government

¡  well-read in law

¡  he participated in the framing of the Virginia Constitution in 1776

¡  Served in the Continental Congress, and was a leader in the Virginia Assembly.

¡  ______

¡  Short man, appeared old and worn

Macon’s Bill #2

¡  Embargo Act 1807 not successful… well duh.

¡  ______ proposed to allow trade with other nations but also to exclusively reinstate trade with either England or France, whichever one pledged to drop its trade restrictions.

¡  ______pounced on this opportunity and promised to drop restrictions and open trade with the U.S.

¡  Madison smelled some dishonesty but was trapped in his own proposal.

Out with the Old…

¡  In 1811… ______.

§  Younger men had ousted older "______."

§  The young Congressmen were from the West and South, and were fiery-tempered.

§  They were called "______" since they pushed for war.

§  Most noteworthy of these War Hawks was ______,

§  a young Kentuckian, named ______at age 34.

Tecumseh and the Prophet

¡  The War Hawks wanted the Indians cleared out of the west (the Ohio Valley) so whites could settle there without fear.

¡  Indian opposition was led by Shawnee brothers ______and ______.

¡  They encouraged traditional Indian clothes and culture,

¡  Urged Indians to not give up or sell their lands.

¡  ______(which was very unusual)

Battle of Tippecanoe

§  November of 1811 Indiana governor ______ attacked and defeated the Shawnee at the Battle of Tippecanoe.

§  The Prophet was killed.

§  This battle made William Henry Harrison a ______and earned him the nickname of "Tippecanoe.“

§  The battle also turned Tecumseh to ______.

§  Notably, two years later William Henry Harrison would also kill Tecumseh during the War of 1812.

Mr. Madison’s War

¡  By 1812, war was seen as inevitable.

¡  Madison asked Congress to declare war on England and they did in June of 1812.

¡  "______?"…

§  ______—The U.S. wanted the right to sail and trade without fear.

§  ______ —The U.S. might gain Canada or Florida.

§  ______ —Americans were still upset about British guns being giving to Indians (Battle of Fallen Timbers) and Indian attacks on the frontier.

§  ______ – America would have to be considered as an equal amongst other nations, rather than a scrawny upstart. This is why the War of 1812 is often called the "Second War for American Independence."