Article links, Review Questions and Practice Problems

Appropriate after Chapter 5

Review exercises for Nies, M. Vollman, M, & Cook, T. (1999). African American Women’s Experiences with Physical Activity in their Daily Lives. Public Health Nursing, 16(1), p. 23-31.

1.) Was this a qualitative or quantitative study?

2.) What were the inclusion criteria for the study?

3.) What was the sample size?

4.) Was the sampling method utilized probability or non-probability sampling?

5.) What factors increased participation in exercise?

6.) If you decided to follow up this study with a quantitative study and your dependent variable of exercise was measured as no formal exercise, formal exercise 1-3x/week, or formal exercise >3x/week what level of measurement would this be?

7.) If you measured availability of child care as a yes/no response what level of measurement would it be?

8.) If you measured weight loss in pounds what level of measurement would it be?

9.) If you measured knowledge on a scale of 1-10 what level of measurement would it be?

10.) If in the sample of sixteen eight reported enjoying physical activity what percent of your sample is this?

Appropriate after chapter 5.

Review questions for article

Peterson-Sweeney, K., McMullen, A., Yoos, L& Kitzman, H. (2003). Parental perceptions of their child’s asthma: Management and medication use.

1.) Was this a qualitative or quantitative study?

2.) What was the sample size for the study?

3.) What percent of the sample had children who were at least school age?

4.) What percent of the sample had children who were five years old or younger?

5.) What type of sampling method was used and why?

6.) Was the probability or non-probability sampling and what is the difference in these two sampling methods?

7.) Look at the variables in table 2. What level of measurement are they?

8.) What is the difference between sampling error and sampling bias? Which one is very concerning to researchers?

Appropriate after Chapter 6

Review questions for article:

Burns, V. & Porter, E. (2007). The experience of having become sexually active for teen mothers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 24(4), p. 215-236.

1.) Was this a qualitative or quantitative study?

2.) What was the sample size?

3.) What was the age range of the sample?

4.) What sampling methods were utilized and why?

5.) Was this a probability or non-probability sample?

6.) The authors decide to follow up this study with one that randomly selects 100 abstinent female adolescents and assigns half of them to a group that offers creative activities and the other half receive a traditional sex education program. They then follow the group to determine how many of the adolescents initiate sexual activity within the next year. Write an appropriate null hypothesis for this study.

7.) Write an appropriate alternative hypothesis for this study.

8.) The follow up study has an alpha of 0.05 and reports that the group of adolescents who were offered the creative activities waiting on average 10 months before initiating sexual activity while the group that had the traditional sex education program waiting on average seven months before initiating sexual activity. Was this a statistically significant difference?

9.) You analyze the difference in months before initiating sexual activity using a t-test to compare the group means and determine that the p value is 0.08. Is the difference statistically significant?

10.) If your conclusion is not correct, what type of error might you be making?

Appropriate after Chapter 7:

Review questions for article:

Peterson-Sweeney, K. McMullen, A., Yoos, H., Kitzmann, H., Halterman, J., Arcoleo, K, & Anson, E. (2007). Impact of Asthma Education Received from Health Care Providers on Parental Illness Representation in Childhood Asthma. Research in Nursing & Health, 30, 203-212.

1.) Is this a qualitative or quantitative study?

2.) What was the purpose of the study?

3.) What is the null hypothesis for the study?

4.) What is the alternative hypothesis (what the researchers really believe)?

5.) The power analysis completed for the study determined that a minimum sample size needed to detect the smallest anticipated effect size was?

6.) What was the sample size for this study?

7.) Should this be an adequate sample to detect significant differences that do exist?

8.) If the study intended to enroll 228 families but was only able to obtain consent from 178 the risk of what type of error is increased?

9.) The measure of the parent/health care provider interaction instrument had questions which involved an answer on a five point Likert scale where 1 was strongly agree and 5 was strongly disagree. This is what level of measurement?

10.) The total score (summation of the individual questions coded in 1-5) was also available for the measure of parent/health care provider interaction. The total score is what level of measurement?

Appropriate after Chapter 8

Review questions for article

Heavey, E. Moysich, K., Hyland, A., Druschel, C., & Sill, M. (2008). Differences in Pregnancy Desire Among Pregnant Female Adolescents at a State-Funded Family Planning Clinic. *Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 53(2), p. 130-137.*

1.) What was the sample size of the study?

2.) Was it a qualitative or quantitative study?

3.) What was the dependent variable?

4.) What were the independent variables?

5.) Look at Table 1. What level of measurement were these independent variables?

6.) A Chi-square test was used to determine if pregnancy desire was related to any of these independent variables. Which independent variables were significantly related to pregnancy desire?

7.) Why was the Chi-square test the appropriate test to use in this situation?

8.) What percent of the adolescents who were not in school had a desired pregnancy?

9.) What percent of the adolescents who were in school full time had a desired pregnancy?

10.) The study reports that the Chi-square test between pregnancy desire and being in school is significant. Interpret these results along with the answers you gave to questions 8 and 9 to draw a conclusion.

Appropriate after Chapter 9

Review Questions for article

Mahat, G. Scoloveno, M., DeLeon, T, & Frenkel, J. (2008). Preliminary Evidence of an Adolescent HIV/AIDS Peer Education Program. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 23(5), p. 358-363.

1.) What was the purpose of the study?

2.) How many students received the peer education program?

3.) What percent of the total sample received the peer education program?

4.) What type of sampling method was utilized? Was it probability or non-probability sampling?

5.) Knowledge questions were coded as answered correctly or incorrectly. This is what level of measurement?

6.) The total knowledge score could range from 0 to 33. What level of measurement is the total knowledge score?

7.) Look at Table 1. What was the cumulative percent of students who were fourteen years old or younger?

8.) Look at Table 1. What level of measurement are age, sex, ethnicity and sexually active?

9.) The fourth section of the behavioral intention questions included questions on the confidence to engage in safe sex. The items are scored on a scale from 1 to 5. This is an example of what type of measurement?

10.) The Youth Risk Behavior Survey was determined to have an internal consistency of the total knowledge questionnaire of 0.81. What does this mean?

11.) What was the mean age of the participants in the sample?

12.) Was there an equal number of male and female participants?

13.) Were the control and experimental groups similar in demographic make up?

14.) Why is that important to note?

15.) Were more males or females sexually active before the intervention?

16.) Was there a significant difference in the HIV/AIDS knowledge between adolescents’ boys and girls pre and post intervention?

17.) If a future large study reported that the educational interventions do result in a significant difference in the HIV/AIDS knowledge between adolescent boys and girls you would know that the results found in this study regarding gender differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge post intervention were an example of what type of error? What would be the most likely cause of this error?

18.) Was the percent of adolescents who planned to use a condom after the educational intervention higher or lower for the intervention group vs. the control group?

19.) Look at the percentage of adolescents who planned to use a condom and those who planned to have their partner use a condom before and after the educational information/intervention. Did both the experimental and control groups have the same response in these categories? What might be a viable explanation?

20.) Although this research did not find a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of confidence to engage in safe sex, what did they determine was different about this outcome variable?

21.) Comparing the confidence to engage in safe sex between boys and girls was done using what test? Why?

Appropriate for use after Chapter 10

Review questions for article

Minnesota Baccalaureate Psychomotor Skills Faculty Group. (2008). Journal of Nursing Education, 47(3), p. 98-104.

1.) What was the purpose of the study?

2.) What type of sampling method was used? Is this probability or non-probability sampling?

3.) What was the sample size for the study?

4.) The Caring Behaviors During Blood Pressure instrument included 30 items which were scored as present or not present. This is what level of measurement?

5.) The total score on the Caring Behaviors During Blood Pressure instrument could range from 0-30. What level of measurement is the total score?

6.) How was content validity established?

7.) A Likert scale was used by the patient role-players to measure caring the students exhibited. The scale was 1(not at all), 2 (some), or 3 (much). What level of measurement is this?

8.) Look at table 2. What was the mean score for warmth and caring on the pretest? On the posttest?

9.) What was the average pretest score for subjective caring behaviors during blood pressure measurement?

10.) What was the average posttest score for subjective caring behaviors during blood pressure measurement?

11.) What test was used to determine if the within-student posttest scores for the subjective measure of caring behaviors significantly higher than the pretest score and were they?

12.) Why is this an appropriate test to use in this study?

13.) What percent of the sample population had health care experience?

14.) What percent of the sample population had previous experience as nursing assistants?

15.) Clinical Application: The majority of the students in the sample who were already working as nursing assistants were competent in taking blood pressure measurements already. Based on the results of this study should they be exempt from additional instruction on blood pressure measurement in a caring manner?

**Zurmehly article appendix is appropriate after Chapter 11**

Appropriate for use after Chapter 12

Review questions for article:

Emery, K. & Faries, S. (2008). The lack of motor vehicle occupant restraint use in children arriving at school. Journal of School Health, 78(5), p. 274-279.

1.) What was the purpose of the study?

2.) What was the total sample size?

3.) How many children were observed in private vehicles at intersections vs. at school?

4.) What was the MVOR rate for the children at intersections?

5.) What was the MVOR rate for children at the school?

6.) Look at table one. Which region had the highest median income?

7.) What percent of people in Region 2 were over age 25?

8.) Which region had the greatest number of children who were restrained both at school and at intersections?

9.) What type of vehicle had the most number of children restrained at school and at intersections? What type had the least number of children restrained at school and at intersections?

10.) Interpret the relative risk the study reports. Was it significant?