Work & Family Issues

Psyc 461/592 Dr. Lou Buffardi

Spring 2007 993-1363

3072 King Hall

Office Hours:

Thur 1-2:30

F 1011:30

This course addresses issues central to the intersection of the two major domains in our life: work and family. These topics are of major importance in today's society as people strive to attain appropriate balance in their lives. The course will emphasize (but not exclusively) readings from journal articles based on empirical research findings and will be taught "seminarstyle" (much class participation with a limited amount of lecturing from me). This will require that you read the appropriate articles prior to the class meeting and that you come to class prepared to discuss the article. In addition to the journal articles, I have also included a number of newspaper & op-ed columns that also provide lively and informative debates on issues relevant to this course. It is quite likely that many of you may have already “staked out” positions on these issues—positions that may well be different from other members in the class. I certainly urge all of us to be willing to listen to other positions respectfully and without rancor.

In that light, I hope that you view this class as a “Learning Community”.

This course is an opportunity for us to establish a genuine learning community where both faculty and students learn from each other’s knowledge and experience. Such communities imply a “social contract” between faculty and students. My view of this contract is as follows:


·  I promise to treat you with respect, carefully listening to your questions and comments

·  I promise to come to class prepared, provide structure to the course and convey a willingness to work with you in helping you master the material

·  I promise to develop tests that are fair (not necessarily “easy”!) and that reflect the material covered in class.

·  I promise to try to relate the material to your own experience


·  To treat the instructor and each other with respect

·  To come to class prepared to discuss/reflect on the material

Stay current in the readings

·  To extend reasonable effort to learn the material

Turn in assignments on time

Regularly access WebCT (but don’t let downloading the PowerPoint slides substitute for attending class!

Readings Book

Kossek & Lambert (eds). (2005). Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives. LEA, Mahwah, N.J. By Feb. 12, read K&L Chapter 1 overview, nominate 3 other chapters to be read by the class, and email your nominations to me. I will compile your nominations and select ~ 10 that appear the most popular and assign them to the syllabus

Course requirements and percentage of your grade:

1. (25%). Midterm exam

2. (25%) Final exam

3. (25%). Undergraduates (Psyc 461):10page literature review/term paper on a topic of your choosing. (Clear the topic with me). Due Apr. 9.

Graduates (Psyc 592): 15-20 page research proposal on a topic of your choosing. Strive to make it “do-able” so that the proposed research might actually be conducted. Due Apr. 9. It is possible to pair with another graduate student who has a similar research interest; indeed this would be advisable if you really intend to conduct the research.

4. (10%). Class presentation (~ 20 minutes) summarizing a journal article of your choice (see Suggested Readings List). Other articles not on the list are potentially allowable, but please clear such choices with me beforehand . Develop a PowerPoint presentation of the article and email it to me by the Thursday preceding the date you are scheduled to present. Notify me by Feb. 5 of the article you have selected. It is allowable, but not necessary, for the article chosen to be relevant to your term paper/research project.

5. (15%). Class participation. There will be many opportunities to participate in class.

(A) Each class session will begin with the class spending 10-20 minutes discussing “everyday” work & family topics. Two students will be assigned to take the lead in these discussions which may draw from recent magazine/newspaper articles (see Steiner’s Washington Post blog -- -- or her book “Mommy Wars” -- or Shellenbarger’s Work & Family book of her Wall Street Journal columns or the Career Journal site: ), personal experience (please do not feel coerced to divulge anything you are not comfortable discussing), or knowledge of someone else’s personal situation.

(B) Comments/questions on journal articles presented in class. In addition to making comments in class, to facilitate class discussion, non-presenting students will be responsible for e-mailing three (3) presenters during the semester at least 24 hours prior to the date and time of the assigned article presentation. The e-mail should suggest a question or comment about the assignment that would be an interesting point for discussion. The presenter, of course, does not have to address each of the questions or comments, but the information from non-presenters can form the basis for some of the discussion of each article. Please copy questions and comments to me so I can record credit for you, and save your e-mails in case your record and mine do not agree.

(C) Participation in an ongoing research project as opportunities present themselves.

Class Schedule

E-reserve Reading

Jan. 22 Video: Juggling Work & Family (Prt 1) K&L: Chap 1

Jan. 29 Video: Part 2; Basic Concepts #1

Feb. 5 Select article to present

Sandwich Generation #2, 3, 4, 5,

Feb. 12 Nature vs Nurture & Careers #6 (see also Hirshman, Brooks, & Warner op-ed pieces in Mass Media) Feb. 19 # 7, 8, 9

Feb. 26 Expansionist Theory #10, 11

Mar. 5 Mid-term exam

Mar. 12 Spring Break!!

Mar. 19

Mar. 26

Apr 2

Apr. 9 Term papers due

Apr. 16

Apr. 23

Apr. 30

May 7 Reading Day

May 14 Final Exam (4:30-7:15)

1. Buffardi, L.C. & Erdwins, C.J. (1997). Child-care satisfaction: Linkages to work attitudes, interrole conflict, and maternal separation anxiety. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2, 84-96

2. Buffardi, L., Smith, J., O'Brien, A., & Erdwins, C. (1999). The impact of dependent care responsibility and gender on work attitudes, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 356367.

3. Hammer,L., Neal, M., Newsom, J., Brockwood, K., & Colton, C. (2005). A longitudinal study of the effects of dual-

earner couples’ utilization of family-friendly workplace supports on work and family outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology,90, 799-810.

4. Thomas, L. and Ganster, D. (1995). Impact of familysupportive work variables on workfamily conflict and strain: A control perspective, Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 615.

5. Baltes, B., Briggs, T., Huff, J., Wright,J., & Neuman, G. (1999). Flexible and compressed workweek schedules: A meta-analysis of their effects on work-related criteria. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 496-513.

6. Spielke, E.S, (2005). Sex differences in intrinsic aptitude for mathematics and science?: A critical review. American Psychologist, 60, 950-958.

7. Lyness, K. S. & Judiesch, M.K. (2001). Are female managers quitters? The relationships of gender, promotions, and family leaves of absence to voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1167-1178.

8. Thompson, C.A., Beauvais, L.L., & Lyness, K.S. (1999). When work-family benefits are not enough: The influence of work-family culture on benefit utilization, organizational attachment, and work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 392-415.

9. Eagle, B. E., Miles, E.W., & Icenogle, M.L. (1997). Interrole conflicts and the permeability of work and family domains: Are there gender differences? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 168-184.

10. Barnett, R.C. & Hyde, J.S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family. American Psychologist, 56, 781-796.

11. Grzywacz, J. & Marks, N. (2000). Reconceptualizing the work-family interface: An ecological perspective on the correlates of positive and negative spillover between work and family. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 111-126.


Suggested Readings for Class Presentation

Physiological effects
Kinsley, C.H., & Lambert, K.G. (Jan. 2006). The maternal brain: Nature’s answer to the demands of motherhood. Scientific American. [ Hard copy in Fenwick or Link on Suggested Readings. Not available through GMU electronic journals.]

Lundberg, U., & Frankenhauser,, M. (1999). Stress and workload of men and women in high-ranking positions. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 142-151. [women w kids higher stress hormones than women w/o kids, and men w or w/o kids]

Job satisfaction & life satisfaction Does job satisfaction contribute to other domains of a person’s life?

Judge, T. & Watanabe, S. (1993). Another look at the job satisfactionlife satisfaction relationship. Journal of Applied

Psychology, 78, 939948

Hart, P. (1999). Predicting employee life satisfaction: A coherent model of personality, work and nonwork experiences,

and domain satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology.84, 564584.

Heller, D. & Watson, D. (2005). The dynamic spillover of satisfaction between work and marriage: The role of time and

mood. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1273-1279.

Mothers' mental health

Frone, M.R. (2000). Work-family conflict and employee psychiatric disorders: The national comorbidity survey, Journal of Applied

Psychology,85, 888-895

Hock, E. & DeMeis, D. (1990). Depression in mothers of infants: The role of maternal employment. Developmental

Psychology, 26, 285291.

Werbel, J. (1998). Intent and choice regarding maternal employment following childbirth. Journal of Vocational Behavior,


Shuster, C. (1993). A typology of maternal responses to integrating parenting and employment. Family Relations, 42,


Attachment style and work-family

Sumer, H.C. & Knight, P.A. (2000). How do people with different attachment styles balance work and family? A personality perspective on work-family linkage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 653-663.

Vasquez, K., Durik, A., & Hyde, J. (2002). Family and work: Implications of adult attachment styles. Personality and

Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 874-886.

Gender differences

Coltrane, S. and Adams, M. (1997). Workfamily imagery and gender stereotypes: Television and the reproduction of

difference. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 323347.

Biernat, M., & Wortman, C.B. (1991) Sharing of home responsibilities between professionally employed women and their

husbands. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 844860.

Frone, M., Russell, M., & Barnes, G. (1996). Workfamily conflict, gender, and healthrelated outcomes: A study of

employed parents in two community samples. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.1, 5769.

Gutek, B., Searle, S., & Klepa, L. (1991). Rational vs gender role explanations for workfamily conflict. Journal of

Applied Psychology, 76, 560568.

Contrast these 2 articles:

(1) Barnett, R. and Baruch, G. (1985). Women's involvement in multiple roles and psychological distress. Jounal

of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 135145

(2) Barnett, R., Marshall, N. & Pleck, J. (1992). Men's multiple roles and their relationship to men's psychological

distress. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 358367

Coping Strategies

Becker, P.E., & Moen, P. (1999). Scaling back: Dual earner couples’ work-family strategies. Journal of Marriage and the

Family. 61, 995-1007.

Baltes, B.B., & Heydens-Gahir, H.A. (2003). Reduction of work-family conflict through the use of selection, optimization, and

compensation behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 1005-1018.

Rosenbaum M., & Cohen, E. (1999). Equalitarian marriages, spousal support, resourcefulness, and psychological distress

among Israeli working women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 102-113.

Adams, G.A. & Jex, S.M. (1999). Relationships between time management, control, work-family conflict, and strain. Journal

of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 72-77.

Dualcareer couples

Brett, J., & Yogev, S. (1988). Restructuring work for family: How dual-earner couples with children manage. Journal of

Social Behavior and Personality, 3, 159174.

Hammer, L., Allen, E., & Grigsby, T. (1997), Workfamily conflict in dual-earner couples: Withinindividual and

crossover effects of work and family. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 185203.

Gareis, K.C., Barnett, R.C., & Brennan, R.T. (2003). Individual and crossover effects of work schedule fit: A within-

couple analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 1041-1054.

Hallett, M., and Gilbert, L. (1997). Variables differentiating university women considering rolesharing and conventional

dualcareer marriages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 308322.

Aryee, S., and Luk, V. (1996). Work and nonwork influences on the career satisfaction of dualearner couples. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 49, 3852.

Workfamily conflict

Allen, T.D., Herst, D.E., Bruck, C.S., & Sutton, M. (2000). Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A

review and agenda for future research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 278-308.

Frone, M., Yardley, J., & Markel, K. (1997). Developing and testing an integrative model of the workfamily interface.

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 145167.

Netemeyer, R., Boles, J., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of workfamily conflict and familywork

conflict scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 400410.

Carlson, D. (1999). Personality and role variables as predictors of three forms of workfamily conflict. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, (1999). 55,. 236253.

Carlson, D., Kacmar, K., & Williams, L. (2000). Construction and initial validation of a multidimensional measure of

work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 249-276.

Kossek, E. and Ozeki, C. (1998). Workfamily conflict, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review and

directions for organizational behavior & human resources research. Journal of Applied Psychology,83, 139149.

Adams, G., King, L. & King, D. (1996) Relationships of job and family involvement, family social support, and

work/family conflict with job and life satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 411420.

Work-family Balance

Clark, S. (2001). Work cultures and work/family balance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 348-365.

Household labor/Spousal support/Men as caregivers

Schneer, J.A. & Reitman, F. (1995). The impact of gender as managerial careers unfold. Journal of Vocational Behavior,

47, 290-315.

Stroh, L.K., Brett, J.M., & Reilly, A.H. (1996) Family structure, glass ceiling, and traditional explanations for the

differential rate of turnover of female and male managers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 49, 99-118.

Artis, Julie E.; Pavalko, Eliza K. (2003). Explaining the decline in women's

household labor: Individual change and cohort differences. Journal of Marriage