Mathematics

Unit 1: Data and Decisions...... 1

Unit 2:Whole Numbers, Factors, and Primes...... 11

Unit 3: Fractions, Decimals, and Parts...... 22

Unit 4: Operating with Fractions and Decimals...... 32

Unit 5: Geometry, Perimeter, Area, and Measurement...... 41

Unit 6: Taking a Chance...... 53

Unit 7: Strengthening Whole Number Multiplication and Division...... 61

Unit 8: Integers, Patterns, and Algebra...... 67

Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008

Course Introduction

The Louisiana Department of Education issued the Comprehensive Curriculum in 2005. The curriculum has been revised based on teacher feedback, an external review by a team of content experts from outside the state, and input from course writers. As in the first edition, the Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, revised 2008 is aligned with state content standards, as defined by Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs), and organized into coherent, time-bound units with sample activities and classroom assessments to guide teaching and learning. The order of the units ensures that all GLEs to be tested are addressed prior to the administration of iLEAP assessments.

District Implementation Guidelines

Local districts are responsible for implementation and monitoring of the Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum and have been delegated the responsibility to decide if

• units are to be taught in the order presented
• substitutions of equivalent activities are allowed
• permitted changes are to be made at the district, school, or teacher level

Districts have been requested to inform teachers of decisions made.

Implementation of Activities in the Classroom

Incorporation of activities into lesson plans is critical to the successful implementation of the Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum. Lesson plans should be designed to introduce students to one or more of the activities, to provide background information and follow-up, and to prepare students for success in mastering the Grade-Level Expectations associated with the activities. Lesson plans should address individual needs of students and should include processes for re-teaching concepts or skills for students who need additional instruction. Appropriate accommodations must be made for students with disabilities.

New Features

Content Area Literacy Strategies are an integral part of approximately one-third of the activities. Strategy names are italicized. The link (view literacy strategy descriptions) opens a document containing detailed descriptions and examples of the literacy strategies. This document can also be accessed directly at

A Materials List is provided for each activity andBlackline Masters (BLMs) are provided to assist in the delivery of activities or to assess student learning. A separate Blackline Master document is provided for each course.

The Access Guide to the Comprehensive Curriculum is an online database of suggested strategies, accommodations, assistive technology, and assessment options that may provide greater access to the curriculum activities. The Access Guide will be piloted during the 2008-2009 school year in Grades 4 and 8, with other grades to be added over time. Click on the Access Guide icon found on the first page of each unit or by going directly to the url

Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008

Mathematics

Unit 1: Data and Decisions

Time Frame: Approximately four weeks

##### Unit Description

This unit examines the selection and use of appropriate statistical methods to analyze data in numerical and graphical ways, including use of an input-output table. Venn diagrams are used to solve problems involving counts of objects classified in multiple ways.

Student Understandings

Students can display data using frequency tables, stem-and-leaf plots, and scatter plots and discuss the patterns seen in each type of display. This representation of data can be described by using measures of central tendency. In addition, students can use Venn diagrams as an appropriate method of solving problems.

Guiding Questions

1. Can students organize and display data using frequency tables, stem-and-leaf plots, and scatter plots?
2. Can students use two-circle Venn diagrams to solve problems?
3. Can students use trends and patterns to describe given data?
4. Can students calculate measures of central tendency and range for a set of data?

5. Can students make informed decisions about which graph(s) might best be used to represent given data?

GLE # / GLE Text and Benchmarks
Data Analysis, Probability, and Discrete Math
29. / Collect, organize, label, display, and interpret data in frequency tables, stem-and-leaf plots, and scatter plots and discuss patterns in the data verbally and in writing (D-1-M) (D-2-M) (A-3-M)
30. / Describe and analyze trends and patterns observed in graphic displays (D-2-M)
32. / Calculate and discuss mean, median, mode, and range of a set of discrete data to solve real-life problems (D-2-M)
33. / Create and use Venn diagrams with two overlapping categories to solve counting logic problems (D-3-M)
Patterns, Relations, and Functions
37. / Describe, complete, and apply a pattern of differences found in an input-output table (P-1-M) (P-2-M) (P-3-M)

#### Sample Activities

Activity 1: Frequency Tables (GLE: 29, 32)

Materials List: data set, Frequency Tables BLM, Vocabulary Card BLM,index cards, paper, pencil, one metal ring per student

Write a set of test scores or daily number grades, with an odd number of grades in the set, on the overhead or blackboard. Have students use the grades to construct a frequency table, discuss the role of intervals, and build a related line plot from a frequency table. Once the line plot is complete, probe students to question their interpretation of the shape of the data. Ask questions such as these:

• What is the range of the data?
• Are there any gaps in the grades?
• Is there one grade that occurs more frequently than others? (Discuss mode)
• Is there one grade that is set apart from the others? (Discuss outliers)
• What might someone say if asked to describe a typical grade form the set of data? (Listen for many opinions- may hear answers referring to mean, median, mode, or average.)

Ask students to compare and contrast the differences when categorizing the grades by numerical values and by letter grades. Have students use tally marks to show the number of students earning each letter grade. Provide opportunities for students to make similar analyses using different sets of data. For additional practice, have students complete the Frequency Tables BLM. The students will collect data, create a frequency table, and analyze the data.

NFL Stats

NBA Stats

Major League Baseball Stats

100 Largest School Districts Stats

To develop students’ knowledge of key vocabulary, have them create avocabulary card(view literacy strategy descriptions)to define frequency table. Distribute 3x5 or 5x7 inch index cards to each student, and ask them to follow your directions in creating the sample card. Make a transparency of the Vocabulary Card BLM to demonstrate what the card should look like. Have the students place the targeted word in the middle of the card, as in the example below. Have the students work together in groups to define the term and then discuss the definitions as a class and select the one that best defines the word. Each student should then write the definition in the appropriate space. Next, have students list the characteristics or description, give one or two examples, and illustrate the term.

Throughout the unit as students come across key terms, have them create vocabulary cards for each term. Have students punch a hole in each card and use a metal ring to hold them together throughout the year. Allow time for students to review their cards and quiz a partner on the terms to hold them accountable for accurate information on the cards.

Cars / Tally / Frequency
1
2
3
4 / III
IIII
II
I / 3
4
2
1

Activity2: Stem-and-Leaf Plots (GLEs: 29, 30)

Materials List: data to analyze, Stem-and-LeafGraph BLM, paper, pencil

Using a set of datafrom Activity 1, introduce students to a stem-and-leaf plot. Here the emphasis should be on seeing the relationship between choosing stem size and the resulting shape and nature of the plot. Make distinctions between ordered and non-ordered listings in the leaves. Distribute the Stem-and-Leaf Graph BLM. Have students work in small groups to choose a data set and construct a stem-and-leaf description plot using different data sets, such as data from an almanac or book of facts. Ask student to write a short interpretation of the patterns they see.

Activity 3: Measures of Central Tendency (GLEs: 29, 30, 32)

Materials List: data to analyze;Mean, Median, Mode Word Grid BLM; paper; pencil

Using a set of datafrom Activity 1, have students find the mean, median, mode(s), and range for the data set. Have students repeat this activity with other data sets. A stem-and-leaf plot will aid in finding the modes and medians. Make sure that students have a clear understanding that the terms mean, median, and mode are all measures of “average” or central tendency and have them create vocabulary cards(view literacy strategy descriptions) for each of these terms.

As an extension, discuss when it is more appropriate to use one description - mean, median, or mode - over another one. On the board or a piece of chart paper draw a word grid(view literacy strategy descriptions) like the one below or use the Mean, Median, Mode Word Grid BLM on the overhead. In thefirst column are situations in which one of the central tendencies would be necessary. With the students’ participation, fill in the word grid by placing a “+” in the space corresponding with the central tendency that would be most appropriate for that situation.

Situation / Mean / Median / Mode
Ordering jeans for the Gap / +
The average age of people in a 6th grade class when the teacher is included / +

As a class, come up with additional situations to add to the word grid. Once the grid is complete, provide opportunities for students to quiz each other over information from the grid and use the grid to prepare for quizzes.

Teacher note: Students are only required to master the calculation and meaning of each measure of central tendency. The idea of most appropriate is an introduction to be mastered in the eighth grade.

Activity 4: Comparing Data (GLEs: 29, 30, 32)

Materials List: one inch square of paper for each student, one yard of masking tape, paper, pencil

Have students select and create a data set from the total number of letters in the first and last names of students in the class. Ask students to find a way to organize the data so that they can describe the length of a typical name. Create a frequency table to represent the data. The value that occurs most frequently is the mode of the set. Upon further examination, have students describe the range as the lowest value to the highest value in the set (i.e., 15 to 38). To find the median, instruct each student to write the length of his/her name on a one-inch square of paper. Evenly place the squares in order from smallest to largest along a yard of masking tape so that the squares are attached to the tape. Cut off excess tape. Fold the train in half to discover the median. If working with an even number data set, the median will fall between two. Ask students to look for patterns and make summary statements about the data focusing on comparing means, medians, and modes of the data sets.

Activity 5: Looking at Data (GLEs: 29, 30, 32)

Materials List: data to analyze, paper, pencil

Direct students to display a data set in a variety of ways—frequency charts, stem-and-leaf plots, or through data description using mean, median, and mode. Such data sets may be drawn from sporting results, local events, or personal data. Have students record any trends and patterns observed in their math learning log(view literacy strategy descriptions) and then share their observations with the class. This learning log should be kept in a small notebook used only for recording math understanding. Explain to the students that they will use the math learning log all year torecord new understandings, explain math processes, pose and solve problems, make and check predictions, and reflect on what has been learned. Invite students to personalize their math log covers with their names, illustrations, and/or pictures from magazines.

Activity6: Input-Output Table (GLE: 37)

Materials List: Input-Output Tables BLM, paper, pencil

Students should understand that data could be given, perhaps in an incomplete format, where decisions and interpretations need to be made. By examining the data and identifying patterns, it is possible to find missing pieces of data and to determine the rule for the given situation. Provide students with a variety of sample input-output tables. Guide them through finding patterns so that they can fill in missing data and determine the rule for the table. Help students make the connection to ordered pairs that can be graphed on a coordinate plane.

input / output
0 / 8
1 / 11
2 / 14
3
4
5
50 / 158

Solution:

input / output
0 / 8
1 / 11
2 / 14
3 / 17
4 / 20
5 / 23
50 / 158

Distribute the Input-Output Tables BLM to the students. Have them work in pairs to complete the problem. Discuss solutions as a class. These websites provide additional practice for students with input-output tables.

Activity7: What’s My Rule? (GLE: 37)

Materials List: What’s My Pattern? BLM, pencil

Distribute the What’s My Pattern? BLM to the students. Have students work in pairs to examine the table, identify the pattern and find the missing data for each input-output table. Discuss the solutions as a class.

Activity 8: Scatter Plots (GLEs: 29, 30)

Materials List: uncooked spaghetti noodles, Scatter PlotsData Sheet BLM, Graph PaperBLM, pencil, computers

Have students work in pairs to measure each other’s height, and record the measurements on the Scatter Plots Data Sheet BLM. Have each pair collect and record the data from other student pairs until they have data from the entire class. Possible measures could be their heights and heights of their waists from the ground. Ask students to place the height data on the x-axis and the heights of their waists from the ground data on the y-axis. Have students draw an estimate of the line of best fit. Trends or patterns in the data should be identified and compared with the golden ratio, where.

Another set of measures could be the length of the arm from the bend of elbow to the tip of the pointer finger (in inches) and length of leg from back of knee to floor (in inches). Provide instruction and monitor student work to clarify any questions that may evolve.

If computers are available, have students enter the data into a spreadsheet to create the graph electronically.The following site can be used to create a scatter plot online:

Teacher Note: Students can use a piece of uncoooked spaghetti to place on their scatter plots to approximate a line of best fit. Recall that the line of best fit is that line which is as close to all the data as possible. Usually this will be a line that “splits” the data into two approximately equal groups above and below the line.

Activity 9: Venn Diagrams (GLEs: 30, 33)

Materials List: Venn Diagram BLM, paper, pencil

Begin discussion by asking students “What do you think when you hear the term Venn diagram?” Have the students write and reflect on their ideas in their math learning log(view literacy strategy descriptions). Have students share their ideas followed by conveying that Venn diagrams can be used to display information and to solve problems.

Draw two overlapping circles to use as a two-circle Venn diagram, and distribute the Venn Diagram BLM to the students. Ask students, “Who plays sports after school?” Make a list of the students who play sports. Ask, “Who works on homework after school?” Make a separate list of these students. Use the lists of after-school activities to create a two-circle Venn diagram. Include the Universe in the drawing. The Universe takes into account those that would not appear within either circle. Lead a discussion that considers questions such as these:

• Can a student appear more than once on the diagram?
• Does every student appear on the diagram?
• What does the student’s position on the diagram tell about him or her?
• What is true about a student whose name doesn’t appear in one of the circles?
• What is true about the students whose names appear in the intersection of the two circles?
• How many students do homework after school?
• How many students play sports after school?
• How many students only do homework after school?
• How many students only play sports after school?

Provide additional practice with Venn diagrams. Offer completed diagrams for class discussion purposes,or post various questions around the room for the students to answer using a Venn diagram. Then assign each Venn diagram to a different group of students to analyze and present their findings. Have students determine the total number of “items” belonging to each of the two categories depicted by the Venn diagram. Make sure students do not double count those items that lie in the intersection of the two circles. Continue with provided diagrams until students feel comfortable interpreting the information.