Social 7 Chapter 4 Study Guide


Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ First Nations peoples’ first contact with Europeans occurred when they traded with explorers fishing for cod off the east coast.

____ The St. Lawrence River was a seaway for developing the fur trade.

____Economic competition did not shape the fur trade.

____Europeans and First Nations both benefited from their early interactions and trade but as the fur trade developed, it became less beneficial to First Nations.

____Métis are people of mixed cultural background such as French and First Nations or Scottish and First Nations.

____Middlemen were not used in the expansion of the fur trade into the territory west of New France.

____The British trading strategy was to develop direct contact and partnerships with First Nations peoples.

____The Hudson’s Bay Company had a monopoly in the fur trade because they owned most of the fur trading land.

____The Ouendat and the Haudenosaunee were allies of the French.

____The role of missionaries and missions was to convert the Mi’kmaq and other First Nations to Christianity.

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____11.In economic competition, “winning” means

control of wealth / having allies
getting furs first / control of ports

____12.For the First Nation peoples, trading meant

new tools / all of the above
peace / friendships

____13.During the 1600s the French were allies with the

Haudenosaunee / Cree
Mi’kmaq / Ouendat

____14.The location of Québec as a trading centre for the French was

too far inland for the middlemen to paddle to
on the St. Lawrence River and enabled better trade
not beneficial as the port was too small
always being attacked by First Nations peoples

____15.Many First Nations peoples

accepted Christian teachings easily
became missionaries themselves
converted to Christianity for military and trade alliances
followed either Christian or traditional beliefs, but not both

____16.The Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West company could not have developed their economy without the help of the

middlemen / French
sponsors / Métis women

____17.One of the following is not a reason for the expansion into the west.

The unrest between First Nations and the middlemen
The Treaty of Paris
The lack of pelt supplies in the east
Britain’s hunger for land

____18.The Métis people settled in an area called

Trois Rivières / Red River
Québec City / Montréal

____19.Métis women were perceived as

trading and business partners / skilled interpreters
companions / all of the above

____20.The main push factor for expanding west and the migration of many people westward was the

wars in Europe / Métis
fur trade / middlemen

____21.The best reason for Britain selling Rupert’s Land to Canada was because it

had little interest in the fur trade
none of the above
wanted money to go to Britain
was afraid of an American invasion

____22.After the fur trade declined in the 1800s, trading forts became

abandoned sites / missionary stations
permanent settlements / all of the above

____23.In the 1800s, the Cree moved westward because

buffalo were disappearing in the east
the Métis pushed them out
they didn’t like trading with the British
they wanted to join the Blackfoot Confederacy

____24.The voyageurs had to portage often. This means they had to

carry their goods over rapids, including the canoes and pelts
stop, rest, and eat
trade and bargain with First Nations peoples
travel to ports to exchange their pelts

____25.Which of the following statements is true about the fur trade?

All First Nations peoples wanted to be left alone.
First Nations peoples wanted goods and peace.
The French wanted harmony and peace.
The French wanted the land.




26.______competition helped develop the fur trade.

27.The early fur trade led to ______inland toward the ______.

28.As the fur trade developed, it became ______beneficial to First Nations peoples.

29.______and ______were the two main French fur trading and shipping centres during the 1600s.

30.The Ouendat were known as ______between the French and First Nations such as the Anishinabe, in the fur trade.

31.Most First Nations peoples had ______interest in becoming full-fledged Christians and so followed a ______of Christian and ______practices.

32.The two main fur trading companies were the ______and the ______.

33.After the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Britain took over the ______, but also wanted ______so it could have ______.

34.After years of competition and fighting, in 1821 the Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company ______and were called the ______.

35.The Hudson’s Bay Company, which was controlled by Britain, sold ______to Canada because it was worried about the ______gaining control of this region.


Match the following words or terms to their correct description below. Vocab words, these will be on the test

____36.People with French and First Nations origins.

____37.Having control of all resources in an area.

____38.Competition for control of wealth.

____39.Independent traders.

____40.People who acted as go-betweens between two groups during trade.

____41.Stations used by the British to dry their fish.

____42.A leader of the Anishinabe society.

____43.A staple provided by First Nations to the Europeans.

Short Answer

44. In Phase one of the Fur Trade both the English and the French met First Nations on shore and traded. They did however have different reasons for coming to shore. Why did the French and English fishermen come to shore?

  • French:
  • English:


45. One of the biggest differences in the relationship between First Nations and Europeans was religion. Explain how the French and the English treated religion differently when it comes to a relationship with First Nations.

  • French:
  • English:


46. How did the new culture known as the Metis emerge from the fur trade?


47. As the Cree moved west they ran into conflict with the Blackfoot Confederacy. Other than the fur trade what pushed the Cree farther west?