Chemistry 111B Final Exam Review 2015

Stoichiometry Ch. 11

Essential Vocabulary

Avogadro’s numbermolar massmole ratio

limiting and excess reactantSTP

Concepts: You should be able to:

1. Know the significance of the coefficients in a balanced chemical reaction.

2. Understand how the limiting reactant is determine when given a balanced chemical reaction

3. List the sequence of steps for a mass-to-mass conversion

4. Calculate the mass of a reactant when the amount of a product is given

5. Understand the importance of STP when calculating a mass-to volume or volume to volume conversion.

6. Know the numerical value for 1 mole of any gas at STP

Thermochemistry Ch. 15

Essential Vocabulary

specific heatendothermicheat of solution


Concepts: You should be able to:

1. Identify endothermic and exothermic by the sign of the ∆H for the reaction, or it’s placement in the reaction (product side or reactant side).

2. Determine the amount of heat absorbed or released in a chemical reaction using the coefficient of a given substance and heat term given. Remember this is just a stoichiometry problem where the coefficient is written with the ∆H.

3. Apply and Use a Hess’s Law to calculate the ∆H (enthalpy change) for a reaction. Remember that if a reaction has to be flipped the sign of the ∆H changes and if you have to multiply one of the reactions by a scalar you must also multiply that ∆H by the same scalar value.

Gas Laws Ch. 12.1 & Ch. 13

Essential Vocabulary

Boyle’s LawCharles’s LawGay-Lussac’s Combined Law Ideal Gas Law

Conditions of STP

Concepts: You should be able to:

1. Identify the properties of a gas

2. Know the values and meaning of STP

3. State the relationships between pressure, temperature and volume of a constant amount of gas.

4. Apply the gas laws to solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a constant amount of gas. Boyle’s, Charles etc.

5. Know that Kelvin temperatures are used in all gas law problems.

6. Know the formulas for all the gas laws and the unit for each variable. Know that when a variable is not included in the formula is it understood to be held constant.

7. Use Dalton’s law of partial pressure for a mixture of ideal gases.

Solids & Liquids Ch. 12

Essential Vocabulary

Kinetic Molecular Theorydispersion forcesHydrogen bonding

Intermolecular forces(IMF)dipole-dipole forcesphase change diagram (Pressure vs. Temp)

triple point

Concepts: You should be able to:

1. Distinguish between solids and liquid properties, energies, and characteristics

2. Compare the arrangement of particles in solids and liquids

3. Explain and Understand how IMF affects viscosity, melting and boiling points and surface tension.

4. Interpret phase change diagrams like the one below.

Solutions Ch. 14

Essential Vocabulary

misciblesolute solventvapor pressureMolarity (molar)

Concepts: You should be able to:

1. Calculate the molarity of a solution.

2. Identify units used for molarity

3. Identify the solute and solvent when amounts are given

4. Know that in a solution the solvent is in a greater amount.

5. Know the factors that increase the dissolving rate of a solid in solution and explain how each factor works to increase the rate.

Equilibrium Ch. 17

Essential Vocabulary

equilibrium constantreaction quotientLe Chateier’s Principle

reversible reactionchemical equilibrium

Concepts: You should be able to:

1. Write an equilibrium expression for a system at equilibrium. *Remember to NEVER include substances in the (s) or (l) states. Only (g) and (aq) states

2. Calculate equilibrium constants given concentration data.

3. List the characteristics of chemical equilibrium

4. Know the significance of the calculated equilibrium constant values in terms of if reactants or products are favored.

5. Use reaction quotient (Qc) to determine which direction a reaction will shift to reach equilibrium when it’s value is compared to the equilibrium constant “kc or keq”

5. Describe how various factors affect equilibrium and which factors affect the equilibrium constant. Le Chateliers.

Solubility & Precipitation Ch. 17

Essential Vocabulary

solubility product constant Kspsolubility curve

precipitatenet ionic equation

Concepts: You should be able to:

1. Write a ksp expression. This is just like an equilibrium expression except the reactant is not include because it is always in the solid state.

2. Use reaction quotient (Qsp) is used to determine if the solution is unsaturated, saturated or if a precipitate will form. Qsp<ksp (unsaturated no ppt) Q>ksp (forms a ppt) Qsp =ksp (saturated) when it’s value is compared to the ksp

3. Interpret a solubility curve like the one below. Remember that for these graphs solubility is based on the solute being in 100mLor 100g of solvent usually H2O. If a question asks how much can be dissolved in 200mL the amount doubles; likewise if the question asks how much of a solute can be dissolved in 50mL of H2O the amount is ½.

4. Recognize a net ionic equation. In a net ion equation, the specter ions are omitted. Spector Ions are those ions that are soluble such as nitrates, group 1A element. The net ionic equation will show the reactants as ions and the product as a solid precipitate.

Acids & Bases

Essential Vocabulary

Bronsted-Lowryhydronium ionmolarity units (mol/L =M)neutralization

indicatorshydroxide ionstrong acids pH

Concepts: You should be able to:

1. Know the rules for naming acids

2. Recognize an acid and a base by its chemical formula

3. Identify which substance can neutralize an acid

4. Identify which substance can neutralize a base.

5. Know the formulas for determining hydronium ion concentration, the pH, Kw and Ka

6. Relate strength of an acid to its Ka value

7. Calculate a titration problem using

(#of H’s in the formula of the acid)(Ma)Va) = (# of OH’s in the formula of the base)(Mb)(Vb)

in class I wrote it like this:

na(Ma)Va) = nb(Mb)(Vb)

8. Given the pH of a substance, find the hydronium ion concentration.


Essential Vocabulary

oxidation numberoxidationreduction ½ reaction

Concepts: You should be able to:

1. Know the rules for assigning oxidation numbers

2. Determine which substance is oxidized and which has been reduced.

3. Know that in oxidation-reduction the laws of conservation of atoms, charge and mass apply. All atoms must balance, # of e- lost = # of e- gained.

4. Recognize an oxidation ½ reaction and a reduction ½ reaction.