Ch. 10 Historical Linguistics(歷史語言學)

Ch. 10 Historical Linguistics(歷史語言學)

Ch. 10 Historical Linguistics(歷史語言學)

※Causes of Language Change (語言改變原因)

(A) Articulatory Simplification(發音簡單化)

Consonant deletion:

clothes: /kloðIz/ → /kloz/

fifth︰ /fifθ/ → /fift/

(B) Spelling Pronunciation (照拼法發音)

- Pronunciation based on the spelling of a word rather than on its historically inherited form. For example, many pronounce often with /t/, influenced by the spelling with ‘t’, though historically the word had no /t/.

- often → /oftən/ → /ofn/ → /oftən/

(C) Analogy(類比) and Reanalysis (重新分析) – cognitive factors

mandatory: optional= competent:inept

Analogy: reflects preference of speakers of regular over irregular patterns

= extension/generalization of a regularity

- bases on inference of speakers: elements alike in respect A must be alike in respect B

- sting- stung → bring –* brung

- analogy has large role in morphological change

Reanalysis: It means fusion, the merger of two or more forms across word or morphological boundaries. (root + affix is mapped onto word that is originally not decomposable)

hamburger → fishburger → chickenburger... even as free morpheme, burger

(D) Language Contact(語言接觸)

- extensive borrowing, especially in contact situations with bilinguals, multilinguals

- borrowing affects all areas but mostly the lexicon

ox- pig-sheep (English)

beef- pork- mutton (French)

(E) Hypercorrection (矯往過正):

(1) The use of a nonstandard form due to a belief that it is more formal or more correct than the corresponding standard form.

For example, many American English speakers hypercorrect with the use of I inconstructions such as He saw John and I; just between you and I.

(2) Hypercorrection refers to the situation when a word may have two possible pronunciations, one of which is regarded as prestigious, while the other is stigmatized.

dance→/dæns/; /dans/

understand→/ʌndəstænd/; /ʌndəstand/

*The stages of the change in the English language

  1. 449 – 1066Old English

449Saxons invade Britain

6th century------Religious literature

8th century------Beowulf (貝奧武夫)

1066------Norman Conquest (諾曼人征服)

2. 1066 – 1500Middle English

1387-----Canterbury Tales (坎特伯雷故事集)

1476-----Caxton’s printing press (卡克斯頓)

1500----Great Vowel Shift

  1. 1500 - Modern English

1564----Birth of Shakespeare



當年,諾曼第大公爵.威廉(Duke of Normandy William)率領大軍橫渡英吉利海峽,登陸於黑斯廷斯(Hastings)。英國盎格魯——薩克遜王室末代國王哈羅德二世倉促應戰,陣亡沙場。 威廉從此兼任英國國王威廉一世(征服者)(William I the Conquerer)。





古法語借詞 / 現代英語詞 / 意義
cité / city / 城市
duc / duck / 大公
baron / baron / 男爵
juge / judge / 法官
armée / army / 軍隊
enemi / enemy / 敵人
garde / guard / 門衛
prisun / prison / 監獄
liberteé / liberty / 自由
limon / lemon / 檸檬
boef / beef / 牛肉
saumon / salmon / 三文鱼
erbe / herb / 草药

※ Syntactic Change in English(英文句法改變)

  1. Modern English has SVO word order whereas Old English have a basic SOV word order.

Old English︰ se man pone kyning sloh

the man the king slew

Modern English: The man slew the king.

  1. In Old English, negation occurred before the auxiliary verbal whereas Modern English occurred after that.

Old English︰I ne can ne I ne mai tellen alle pe wunder

I not know nor I not can tell all the atrocities

Modern English:I cannot know nor can I tell all the atrocities.

Grimm’s Law(格林法則): The German linguist Jakob Grimm found that a set of consonant shifts that took place between Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Germanic.

  1. voiceless stops> fricatives:p, t. k> f, θ, h
  2. voiced stops> voiceless stops:b, d, g> p, t, k
  3. voiced aspirated stops> plain voiced stops:bh, dh, gh> b, d, g, respectively

Proto-Germanic (原始日耳曼語):英語 德語 丹麥語 荷蘭語 瑞典語

Romance Language (羅曼語)(拉丁語系):西班牙語 法語 義大利語

Ch.11 Writing System (書寫系統)

The palest ink is better than the sharpest memory.


  1. Logographic (拼詞文字): Chinese
  2. Syllabic (音節文字): 音節文字是表音文字的一種,以音節為單位的文字; Japanese
  3. Consonantal alphabetic (子音拼音文字): vowels are inferred from context; Arabic

Ktb (write) (root)詞根

Kitab (book)

Katab (he wrote)

Katib (writer)

  1. Alphabetic (拼音文字): English