APPENDIX 1: Tester Profile

APPENDIX 1: Tester Profile

Tester Report:CapacityBuilding of Lithuanian Women Through ICT & Networking

1.Evaluation Questions

2.Project Context


4.Data Summary

4.1. Questionnaires for the trainees

4.2 Questionnaires for the trainers

4.3 Focus group answers

5. Findings Analysis

APPENDIX 1: Tester profile

APPENDIX 2: Sample of Methodologies – trainees questionnaire

APPENDIX 3: Sample of Methodologies – trainers questionnaire

APPENDIX 4: Sample of Methodologies – questions used during focus group

Tester Report:

CapacityBuilding of Lithuanian Women Through ICT & Networking

1.Evaluation Questions

Overall goal of the project “Capacity Building of Lithuanian Women Through ICT & Networking” evaluation was to get feedback from women who attended courses on Computer Basics and Internet and to evaluate did it had any impact not only on their knowledge but also on their lives. Also evaluation was seeking to evaluate was the course easy to understand for them and if no, how the it could be improved.

Evaluation questions raised by evaluation team addresses three main ICT and gender issues: project on ICTs correspondence to current needs of women; whether women are interested in free of charge ICT training sessions; whether women’s access to the Internet is ensured; how will computer rooms influence the future decision to utilise the computer and the Internet, which will be run by women NGO’s.

2.Project Context

In Lithuanian women make up 53,3% of the total population (in rural areas - 51,6 %). Economic activity of women is lower than that of men. Activity indicator of men is 74%, while that of women - 66 %.

Important changes in public life were stipulated by the social, economic and political reforms that have started in the 90s. The specific labour market structure has been formed. It underscored concealed unemployment in the “shadow economy” as well as an unofficial wage. After Lithuania’s regaining independence a lot of women have chosen a role of a housewife and stopped working, which had been impossible up to then. A lot of kindergartens, especially in the provincial areas, were closed as women were bringing up their children themselves. During the period of 1991 - 1995 the total number of employed women decreased by 19 %. In the end of year 1998 the number of employed women began to rise due to the economic development and also to the fact that one salary was not sufficient for the family. Now economic activity of women is lower than that of men. Activity indicator of men is 74%, while that of women - 66%.

The economic reforms and the processes of privatisation in Lithuania have resulted in an extensive “flow” of the employed from the state sector to the private sector. During the period of 1990 – 2001 the total number of people employed in state enterprises, institutions and organisations decreased from 1,332,90 thousand to 491.1 thousand, a decline of almost 40 %. In contrast, the numbers of people employed in private enterprises almost doubled from 564,7 thousand to 969.5 thousand. It should be noted that more than a half (around 65 %) employees from the state sector were women meanwhile men were more active in the private sector activities. What determined that more women work in the public sector? One of the reasons is that the usual “female” spheres of economy (health care, education, social sector) remained public in the society with patriarchal attitudes, the other – that these are the lowest paid positions and men are not eager to work there. Such distributions make women and men segregation in labour market even deeper. Fewer women than men work overtime, as the latter are traditionally responsible for the childcare, taking children from the kindergarten, school, etc.

Education is one of the spheres where Lithuanian women have achieved the most. The issues such as women illiteracy and the lack of possibility to receive a better education are not debatable in our country. More women than men seek to receive as good education as possible. Having in mind that women generally receive a better education, it would seem that their prospects in the labour market should be more promising. However, the level of education does not influence the achievements of the employed women and men in labour market. In the spheres of economy with lowest wages, the majority of the workers are women. The sphere of financial mediation is the only exception. The wages here are the largest and more women work here than men (63,5 %). However, that does not influence the general wage distribution, as the fewest are employed in this sphere (1,2% only). Vertical segmentation according to gender is well illustrated by the average women and men salary comparison in different spheres of economy. The average women’s gross salary in the economy of the country made up 81% of men’s salary in the year 2002.

Information and communication technologies are quickly becoming relevant and powerful tools of human development. Electronic mail, websites and databases, CD-ROM publishing, interactive educational tools, cooperative virtual discussion groups and various other Internet applications enable a significant increase in access to information sources, multidirectional communication, and distance education, and this at drastically reduced costs when compared to previous media.

According to the Statistics Lithuania 23% of Vilnius (capital city) inhabitants had a computer at home, compared with 4% of the rural population in 2001. About 11% of the people in Vilnius had access to the Internet at home, while only 1.3% of the rural population did. According survey carried out by the research company “Baltic Surveys”, 83% of Lithuanian inhabitants havenever used the Internet and only 3% of Lithuanian inhabitants between the ages 15-74, use it on a daily basis. The Lithuanian Telecom data shows that 80% of Internet users them are located in 6 major cities, and a majority of them are of which the vast majority is men.

A key issue is the high Internet access cost. A new business model for Internet access is required. Peak tariffs for 30 hours a month of dial-up Internet access in 2001 varies in Baltic States: In Lithuania – 60 USD, comparing in Latvia it was 46.30 USD, while in Estonia was 5.20 USD. Lithuania has 680 Internet users per 10,000 people, compared with 1,480 in Estonia, 720 in Latvia. Only 3.2% of households in Lithuania have an Internet connection. [1]

Existing and deepening inequalities in acquiring and using IT skills is yet another barriers that might distance women in Eastern Europe from taking part in the every day economic, political and social life, as well as in the community development.

A survey initiated by the Women’s Issues Information Centre in 2001 has revealed that apart from the still very low levels of computers and Internet use by teachers and students in general, big gender differences exist:


Box 1
-28.8% of male teachers and 10.2% of female teachers usecomputers at least once per week;
-20.4% of male students and 5.6% of female students of upper secondary schools (10-12 grade) use computers regularly;
-10.4% of male teachers, 1.3% of female teachers, use the Internet once per week or more;
-13.2% of male students and 3.9% of female students of upper secondary schools (10-12 grade) use the Internet once per week or more.

The large gender disproportion in the IT sector also shows the research carried out by the company CVO Group in 2002, which indicated that more than two thirds of those employed in computer technology were men. They in fact constitute a majority in nearly every IT-related profession, apart from graphic design and technical teaching. The number of girls studying computer technology is less than one third and engineering one fifth. The patriarchal attitudes of the society about a woman’s role in the family and the community does not encourage girls to strive for a professional career. However there is a positive trend - women composed 80% of the Internet training courses participants. These courses provided free of charge by the private initiative “Window to the Future” started at 24 July 2003. [2]

According to a survey conducted by SIC Gallup Media in 2003, two million adults (out of 2.773,755) in Lithuania do not use the Internet.


The Lithuanian GEM evaluation team consisted of four people. The leading role in evaluation took a woman, who is sociologist and was one of the main initiators of the project “Capacity Building of Lithuanian Women Through ICT & Networking”. Another GEM evaluation team member was also one of the project initiators as well as a member of a Committee which selected NGOs which will be allocated funds for the establishment of computer rooms. Also, two team members were volunteers, social work students.

During the evaluation the team deal with lack of finances and time. Another problem was that the computer classes officially started the courses in June, 2003, but in reality because of summer time, it started on 1 September, 2003. Therefore there was not possible to measure the long-term impact of knowledge gained at the Computer and the Internet courses on women’s lives, it was not possible to evaluate did the ICT trainings had an impact on woman’s promotion at work place, did it changed women’s attitudes towards gender equality in society and in decision-making.

The questionnaires were distributed to all five women’s NGOs which run the computer classes and they were responsible for distribution questionnaires to each participant of the courses and also to the trainers – who had to fill one questionnaire for each course. The questionnaires were received from all five computer classes runned by: Women’s Activity Centre of Marijampole County, Alytus Women’s Crisis Centre, Anyksciai Women’s Club, Jurbarkas Women’s Employment and Information Centre, Kretinga’s Women Information and Training Centre.

The focus group interview was organised in one of the computer classes (it was chosen by lot) – in Alytus.

A map of Lithuania is attached below. It indicates the cities with organizations coordinating the project as well as 5 cities where the organizations already established computer classes.

4.Data Summary

4.1. Questionnaires for the trainees

From 01 06 03 to 01 11 03 485 women were trained during ICT computer courses. 266 course evaluation sheets were received. The main reason for such a small evaluation sheet number received was the fact that they were disseminated only from 01 09 03. Due to technical reasons 2/3 of sheets from one city got lost before it reached us. However, the course trainers said that the sheets were filed in by 98 % of participants.

Profile of the trainees: Majority of the trainees were 30 – 39 years old, have secondary education and are employed. That proves that the majority of women attending courses have vocational training (tertiary) and are middle-aged (30-49 years). They attend courses as they seek to acquire skills which are more important in keeping up in the job market.

Age of trainees

Majority (44%) of the courses participants were 30 – 39 years old, and 40 – 49 years old (24%).

Education of trainees

Majority of trainees had vocational training (tertiary) education (48 %) and high education (28 %).


Majority of trainees were employed (66 %), but unemployed women consist second biggest part (19 %).

How information about the courses was got?

The majority (61% ) information about the courses got from advertisements in local newspaper, other 34 % - were advised by acquaintances, who either red the advertisement, or visited the NGO before and knows about Centre’s activities.

What made you attend the courses?

The majority (67 %) when answering the question “What made you attend the courses” noted that the main incentive was the lack of knowledge and the desire to learn to use IT. 12 % indicated that they came to courses since this type of knowledge is necessary for the job or that they want to learn how to use/browse the Internet.

Will she come to upper level

Absolute majority (83 %) will come to upper level training.

Will she come to the ComputerCenter courses

After the courses the majority (38 %) will come back to classes to check e-mails. However, quite a number indicated - 30 % that they do not know why they are going to come back, whereas 17% did not answer this question and that shows that women got interested in the activity of NGO as well as in the courses and the possibility to use the Internet and they have not decided what particular activity they are going to chose in the center. 4 % indicated that they are going to come to the center with their children.

Will she encourage others to come to computer courses

Absolute majority (97 %) will encourage others to come to courses.

Reasons, why she will encourage others to attend the computer courses

The participants of the courses will promote the computer courses to their friends and colleagues so, they know more - 37 % respondents said yes, 33 % did not indicate and 23% emphasized that they are going to advertise the courses since knowledge using the computer and the Internet is a necessity in contemporary life.

4.2 Questionnaires for the trainers

Course trainers filled in different sheets for each group they trained – 46 questionnaires were received from all 5 Centers.

The data analysis shows that in most cases the course was completed by all participants who started it, only in two cases 1 participant did not complete the course and in 1 case 2 participants dropped out. That proves that women were very motivated in their choice to come and learn how to work with a computer and the internet. Women were very active in learning – 75% of them asked trainers more than 10 questions during a separate session.

The answers of trainers show that each 9th participant come to the centre to use the Internet upon the completion of the courses at least once a week, every 11th – more than once a week. That is quite a good result having in mind that the total number encompasses those women who did not attend introductory courses and cannot use the Internet.

The analysis of the answers of trainers showed that trainees are active in learning, ask a lot of questions and come to use not only the computer upon the completion of courses but also join the activity of an NGO.

4.3 Focus group answers

The focus group research was conducted on 21 11 03 in AlytusCity. 12 women who have completed Computer Basics and introductory Internet courses, participated in the focus group. The focus group consisted of women who took up courses at different times. Women under 18 and more than 59 years of age did not participate in the research since they made up a minority of all participants of the courses. The composition of focus group participants according to their age and education met with the composition of course participants in all five centres.

11 women from AlytusCity and one from the countryside participated in the group. Computer courses did not contribute in finding a job to any unemployed women or to be promoted to those working. The main reasons for that were that the unemployment rate is very high in Alytus as well as the fact that a short period of time passed after the completion of courses – from 1 week to 2 months.

Focus group respondents age groups: Their education:

21-30: 2 women Secondary: 3 women

31-40: 2 women Tertiary: 5 women

41-50: 3 women University: 4 women

51-60: 5 women

How did you learn about the training?

From the newspaper, friend told (she learned from the newspaper), from the day center, colleague/coworker (during the conversation).

What courses did you attend? Excel, Word, internet, e-mail. We are very happy about the lectors who had a lot of patience and tolerance.

Who encouraged you to attend the training? Was looking for an opportunity to learn how to use a computer, how to write text, different charts, how to search for information and knowledge. Pensioner had an opportunity to learn how to use the computer for free. “At first I was scared of a computer as if it was a smart animal, I could not understand it. Later everything became clear, I even felt younger and smarter. Today we all discuss the computer possibilities. I feel moral satisfaction because I am not computer illiterate anymore. Lectors were perfect!”.

“I came there to improve my knowledge and get some practice. I learned a lot of new stuff and I am encouraging my friends to come to learn computer.”

If there were a possibility, would you like to go to the upper level of training?

Absolutely, I would like to enter the upper level of computer training. Everybody agree to participate. We would prefer free courses or minimum charge. The atmosphere is very safe and cozy; we have a great possibility to communicate.

Is there a possibility to come and use the Internet?

Yes, it is almost every day. We can bring our kids together. I feel there safe, cozy, I can chat with friends, just spend a nice time. It encourages women to gather in club, think about future common activities.

Labour exchange helps women with university education, but the jobs are very low paid. Later when you approach the Labour exchange for advise, they reply that I have no right to receive it because I have a job. When you approach Municipality’s social support department, they reply that you can’t get support if the Labour exchange do not give it to you.

Do you use e-mail?

Yes, it is very useful. I am e-mailing friends and family members and among group.

Did you find a job?

No not a job, but joy during the training. It is so great to feel that I can do something myself.